Ask Your Phone to Find Itself
Yes this is in fact possible. By installing the Blare app on your Android device, you can ask your phone to find itself as long as it is on and within earshot. Once your phone hears whatever command you have set it to respond to when looking for your phone, a loud alarm will sound to help find the phone. For iOS, the app called Marco Polo can be used.
This involves the use of short-range trackers like Tile or Tracker. Basically, you attach a little Tile or Tracker fob (which is perpetually paired via Bluetooth to your phone) to your keychain, then push the button when you are looking for your phone and your phone starts beeping. It also works the other way around, that is, you can use the app on your phone to find your missing key chain.
You can use the Google Voice call feature to find your phone. Simply create an account, enter your phone number and Google Voice will call your phone. You can then use the sound of your ring-tone to locate your phone.
I Can't Find My Phone Website
If you can't find your phone, you can use the 'I Can't Find My Phone' site to call your phone for you. Just go to the site, type in your phone number and hit 'Hello?', you will then use the sound of your ring-tone to find your phone.